There is only one proper moon of the Earth, but many satellites. You are, of course, thinking about Cruithne, which itself was the centre of the plot of Stephen Baxter's novel Time.
And for the fingerprints answer, the answer is the Chinese. Although fingerprints were used as identification as far back as Babylonian times, and there is a reference to the possibility that criminals in those times were fingerprinted, the Chinese are the first to have been confirmed to do so. As far back as 300 AD, fingerprints were used as evidence in a trial for theft.
Quite Interestingly, the Chinese also wrote one of the first forensic science textbooks, called variously Collected Cases of Injustice Rectified, or The Washing Away of Wrongs. Besides discussing autopsies, the author, Song Ci, also describes one of the first cases to use forensic entomology, involving a hand sickle and flies attracted to the smell of blood.
The Doctor: There's one thing you never put in a trap, if you're smart, if you value your continued existence, if you have any plans about seeing tomorrow, there's one thing you never, ever put in a trap... Me.
-Doctor Who: The Time of Angels