Happy Birthday Cols!
This Day in History for Wednesday 8th April 2009
217 - Roman Emperor Caracalla is assassinated (and succeeded) by his Praetorian Guard prefect, Marcus Opellius Macrinus.
1093 - The new Winchester Cathedral is dedicated by Walkelin.
1139 - Roger II of Sicily is excommunicated.
1149 - Pope Eugene III takes refuge in the castle of Ptolemy II of Tusculum.
1195 - Alexius III Angelus drives out brother Isaak II as Byzantine emperor
1271 - In Syria, sultan Baybars conquers the Krak of Chevaliers.
1341 - Francesco Petrarca crowned in Rome
1378 - Bartolomeo Prignano elected as Pope Urban VI
1455 - Alfonso de Borgia elected as Pope Callistus III
1500 - Battle at Novara: King Louis XII beats duke Ludovico Sforza
1513 - Explorer Juan Ponce de Leon claimed Florida for Spain
1716 - Duke Karel Leopold of Mecklenburg-Schwerin signs covenant with Russia & marries Czar Peter the Great's niece
1730 - 1st Jewish congregation in US forms synagogue, "Shearith Israel, NYC"
1759 - British troops chase French out of Masulipatam India
1766 - 1st fire escape patented, wicker basket on a pulley & chain
1767 - Ayutthaya kingdom falls to Burmese invaders.
1781 - Premiere of Mozart's violin sonata K379
1783 - Catharina II of Russia annexes the Krim
1789 - House of Representives 1st meeting
1801 - Soldiers riot in Bucharest, kill 128 Jews
1802 - French Protestant church becomes state-supported & -controlled
1808 - The Roman Catholic Diocese of Baltimore was promoted to an archdiocese, with the founding of the dioceses of New York, Philadelphia, Boston, and Bardstown (now Louisville) by Pope Pius VII.
1820 - The Venus de Milo is discovered on the Aegean island of Melos.
1832 - Charles Darwin begins trip through Rio de Janeiro
1838 - Steamship "Great Western" maiden voyage (Bristol England to NYC)
1848 - 1st battle at Gioto: Sardinia-Piemonte beats Austrians
1848 - Battle at Xaquixaguana, Peru: Pedro de la Gasca beats Gonzalo Pizarro
1861 - US mint at Dahlonega, Georgia seized by confederacy
1862 - John D Lynde patents aerosol dispenser
1864 - Battle of Mansfield, La Federals routed by Gen Richard Taylor
1865 - General Robert E Lee surrenders at Appomattox Court House in Virginia
1866 - Italy and Prussia ally against Austria-Hungary.
1869 - American Museum of Natural History opens (NYC)
1876 - Amiliare Ponchielli's opera "La Gioconda," premieres in Milan
1879 - Khedive Ismael of Egypt fires French/British ministers
1879 - Milk was sold in glass bottles for 1st time
1886 - William Ewart Gladstone introduces the first Irish Home Rule Bill into the British House of Commons.
1893 - The Critic reports that ice cream soda is our national drink
1898 - Battle of Atbara River, Anglo-Egyptian forces crush 6,000 Sudanese
1899 - Martha Place becomes the first woman to be executed in an electric chair.
1904 - Gr Brit & France sign Cordial Entente concerning colonial matter
1904 - British mystic Aleister Crowley transcribes the first chapter of the Book of the Law.
1908 - Lord Asquith succeeds Henry Campbell-Bannerman as British premier
1912 - Steamers collide in Nile, drowning 200
1913 - 17th amendment, requiring direct election of senators, ratified
1913 - Opening of China's 1st parliament takes place in Peking (now Beijing)
1914 - US & Colombia sign a treaty concerning Panama Canal Zone
1916 - Norway approves active & passive female suffrage
1916 - In Corona, California, racecar driver Bob Burman crashes, killing three and badly injuring five spectators.
1920 - LONGA soccer team forms in Tilburg
1929 - Indian Independence Movement: At the Delhi Central Assembly, Bhagat Singh and Batukeshwar Dutt throw handouts and bombs to court arrest.
1931 - "White Horse Inn" opens in London
1931 - Dmitri Sjostakovitch' ballet "The Arrow," premieres
1933 - Manchester Guardian warns of unknown nazi terror
1935 - 2nd Golf Masters Championship: Gene Sarazen wins, shooting a 282
1935 - Bartoks 5th String quartet premieres in Wash DC
1935 - Works Progress Administration approved by Congress
1939 - ACV soccer team forms in Axes
1939 - King Zog I of Albania, flees
1940 - Germany battle cruisers sink British aircraft carrier Glorious
1941 - Joe Louis TKOs Tony Musto in 9 for heavyweight boxing title
1942 - A Schoenberg & Tudor's ballet "Pillar of Fire," premieres in NYC
1943 - Hakuun Yasutani Roshi, founder of Sanbo Kyodan, receives dharma
1943 - Jomo Kenyatta of Kenya convicted of involvement with Mau Mau
1943 - Stanley Cup: Detroit Red Wings sweep Boston Bruins in 4 games
1943 - U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt, in an attempt to check inflation, freezes wages and prices, prohibits workers from changing jobs unless the war effort would be aided thereby, and bars rate increases to common carriers and public utilities.
1945 - Nazi occupiers executed, Nazi general Christiansen flees Netherlands
1946 - League of Nations assembles for last time
1947 - Largest recorded sunspot (7,000) observed
1948 - Soen Nakagawa & Nyogen Senzaki (Zen teachers) meet in SF
1950 - "Miss Liberty" closes at Imperial Theater NYC after 308 performances
1952 - Pres Truman seizes steel mills to avert a strike
1953 - Dag Hammarskjoeld chosen as secretary-general of UN
1954 - "By the Beautiful Sea" opens at Majestic Theater NYC for 270 perfs
1956 - 20th Golf Masters Championship: Jack Burke Jr wins, shooting a 289
1956 - 6 marine recruits drown during exercise at Paradise Is SC
1956 - M Bandaranaike's People's front wins election in Ceylon
1960 - Neth & Germany sign accord concerning war casualties
1961 - "Show Girl" closes at Eugene O'Neill Theater NYC after 100 perfs
1961 - British liner "Dara" explodes in Persian Gulf, kills 236
1962 - Accords of Evian (Algeria) accepted by referendum in France
1963 - 35th Academy Awards - "Lawrence of Arabia," A Bancroft & G Peck win
1963 - Tigers claim young pitcher Denny McLain from the White Sox for $25,000
1964 - Unmanned Gemini 1 launched
1966 - AFL chooses 36 year old Al Davis as commissioner
1966 - Leonid Brezhnev elected secretary-general of communist party
1966 - OAO 1, 1st orbiting astronomical observatory, launched
1968 - 40th Academy Awards postponed to Apr 10th due to death of M L King
1968 - Baseball's Opening Day is postponed because of M L King assassination
1968 - Czechoslovakia Cernik govt forms
1968 - New socialist constitution of East Germany takes effect
1968 - WKPI TV channel 22 in Pikeville, KY (PBS) begins broadcasting
1969 - 1st Baseball game in Canada - Mont Expos beats NY Mets 10-9
1969 - Expansion teams Royals, Expos, Padres & Pilots win their 1st games
1970 - "Cry for Us All" opens at Broadhurst Theater NYC for 8 performances
1970 - Senate rejects Nixon's nomination of Carswell to Supreme Court
1971 - 1st legal off-track betting system begins (OTB-New York)
1972 - Alvin Kallicharran scores 100* in his 1st Test Cricket innings v NZ
1973 - Thirty-two terrorist bombings in Cyprus take place.
1974 - Discovery Island opens
1974 - Hammerin' Hank Aaron hits 715th HR, breaks Babe Ruth's record
1975 - 47th Academy Awards - "Godfather II," Ellen Burstyn & Art Carney win
1975 - Frank Robinson debuts as 1st black baseball mgr (Cleve, beats NY 5-3)
1977 - Israel premier Rabin resigns
1979 - "Carmelina" opens at St James Theater NYC for 17 performances
1979 - 204th & final episode of "All in the Family"
1979 - 8th Colgate Dinah Shore Golf Championship won by Sandra Post
1979 - People's Republic of China joins IOC
1980 - Islander Potvin's 2 shorthanded goals tie NHL record vs Kings & set NHL rec of 2 shorthanded playoff goals in 1 period
1981 - Islanders scored 9 goals against Toronto in playoffs
1982 - Penguins 2-Isles 4-Preliminary-Isles hold 2-0 lead
1982 - Tracy Caulkins, 19, wins her 36th US swimming title
1984 - 13th Nabisco Dinah Shore Golf Championship won by Juli Inkster
1984 - 4th Golden Raspberry Awards: Lonely Lady wins
1985 - "Leader of the Pack" opens at Ambassador Theater NYC for 120 perfs
1985 - Amdahl releases UTS/V, 1st mainframe Unix
1985 - India files suit against Union Carbide over Bhopal disaster
1986 - Clint Eastwood elected mayor of Carmel California, Make his day
1989 - 1-handed pitcher Jim Abbott debut but lasts only 4 2/3 inn
1989 - Entertainment Tonight's Mary Hart marries producer Burt Sugarman
1990 - "Aspects of Love" opens at Broadhurst Theater NYC for 377 performances
1990 - "Twin Peaks" with Peggy Lipton premieres on ABC-TV
1990 - 54th Golf Masters Championship: Nick Faldo wins, shooting a 278
1990 - King Birendra of Nepal lifts 30-year ban on political parties
1990 - Kris Monaghan wins LPGA Red Robin Kyocera Inamori Golf Classic
1990 - Norwegian Scandinavian Star catches fire; about 170 die
1990 - New Democracy wins the national election in Greece.
1991 - "I Hate Hamlet" opens at Walter Kerr Theater NYC for 88 performances
1991 - Jockey, Bill Shoemaker, paralyzed in a car accident
1991 - Major league umpires & baseball reach a 4-year agreement
1991 - Michael Landon announces he has inoperable cancer of pancreas
1991 - Oakland A's stadium becomes 1st outdoor arena to ban smoking
1992 - "5 Guys Named Moe" opens at Eugene O'Neill Theater NYC for 445 perfs
1992 - After 151 years Britain's "Punch Magazine" final issue
1993 - Indians' Carlos Baerga is 1st to switch hit HRs in same inn (vs Yanks)
1993 - STS-56 (Discovery) launches into orbit
1994 - Atlanta Brave Kent Mercker no-hits Dodgers, 6-0
1994 - Darryl Strawberry enters Betty Ford clinic
1994 - Japans premier Morihiro Hosokawa resigns
1994 - Smoking banned in Pentagon & all US military bases
1995 - BPAA US Open won by Dave Husted
1995 - Oliver McCall beats Larry Holmes in 12 for heavyweight boxing title
1996 - Bruce Seldon TKOs Tony Tucker in 7 to win vacated WBA boxing title
1997 - Microsoft Corp releases Internet Explorer 4.0
1997 - STS 83 (Columbia 22), lands
1999 - Haryana Gana Parishad, a political party in the Indian state of Haryana, merges with the Indian National Congress.
2000 - Nineteen Marines are killed when an V-22 Osprey tilt-rotor aircraft crashes near Marana, Arizona.
2004 - Darfur conflict: The Humanitarian Ceasefire Agreement is signed by the Sudanese government and two rebel groups.
2004 - U.S. National Security Advisor Condoleezza Rice testifies before the 9/11 Commission.
2006 - Shedden massacre: The bodies of eight men, all shot to death, are found in a field in Ontario, Canada. The murders are soon linked to the Bandidos motorcycle gang.
2008 - The construction of the world's first building to integrate wind turbines completes, in Bahrain.
"Goodness is about what you do. Not what you pray to."