Doughnut Jimmy wrote:The place the witches pass through with "the thing with the bulls" is clearly a reference to Pamplona (?sp) in Spain
I think people have already said Lancre has elements of both rural England and alpine areas, eg: Switzerland with the "Lancre knife"
also Appalachia, in some ways. There is also an area referred to as the Octarine Grass Country, which is a passing pun on the "Blue Grass" area of Kentucky
what about Hersheba? Apart from being a pun which only works for Americans ( Hershey Bar ), just as the "djelibeybi" one doesn't work for them, is anything known about it?
Genua as ruled by Lilith Tempscire bears a distinct resemblance to Disneyland
Istanzia is mentioned in Fifth Elephant, and it seems to have an army, and an ambassador in Uberwald.
Borogravia appears to be bordered by Mouldavia, which is mentioned briefly in Night Watch
Pseudopolis, or Psephopolis is apparently the nearest city-state to Ankh-Morpork and seems to be similar in many ways. It has a University ( Braseneck College ) and Nobby Nobbs seems to have been in the army there at some earlier time.
Krull has no obvious counterpart, being a mysterious country which actually overhangs the rim at some point and also has a magical university and a theocratic system of government