There is only one proper moon of the Earth, but many satellites. You are, of course, thinking about Cruithne, which itself was the centre of the plot of Stephen Baxter's novel Time.
And for the fingerprints answer, the answer is the Chinese. Although fingerprints were used as identification as far back as Babylonian times, and there is a reference to the possibility that criminals in those times were fingerprinted, the Chinese are the first to have been confirmed to do so. As far back as 300 AD, fingerprints were used as evidence in a trial for theft.
Quite Interestingly, the Chinese also wrote one of the first forensic science textbooks, called variously Collected Cases of Injustice Rectified, or The Washing Away of Wrongs. Besides discussing autopsies, the author, Song Ci, also describes one of the first cases to use forensic entomology, involving a hand sickle and flies attracted to the smell of blood.
I've lived for over 2000 years, and not all of them were good ones. I've made many mistakes. And it's about time I did something about that.
-The Twelfth Doctor, Doctor Who: Deep Breath